For further details see:
University of Essex webpage
Manipulating guard cell anatomy and physiology using molecular and physiological approaches to understanding impact on crop performance
There is a great need to develop improved plants to serve the food demands of the ever-increasing world population. Stomata are pores in the leaf surrounded by specialized epidermal cells called guard cells (GCs). GCs increase or decrease in volume in response to internal and external stimuli thereby regulating stomata aperture. The changes exhibited by GCs alter stomatal aperture and affect the flux of gases between the internal leave environment and the atmosphere and therefore have ultimate control on photosynthetic processes and water loss from the plant.